Carbohydrates (By Difference)
Historically it was difficult to determine the various carbohydrates present in foods, and an approximation was often made by subtracting the measured protein, fat, ash, and water from the total weight. Carbohydrate by difference is the sum of: nutritionally available carbohydrates (dextrins, starches, and sugars); nutritionally unavailable carbohydrate (pentosans, pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose) and non‐carbohydrates such as organic acids and lignins. Carbohydrates are chemical compounds that contain oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon atoms. They consist of monosaccharide sugars of varying chain lengths and that have the general chemical formula Cn(H2O)n or are derivatives of such. Certain carbohydrates are an important storage and transport form of energy in most organisms, including plants and animals. Carbohydrates are classified by their number of sugar units: monosaccharides (such as glucose and fructose), disaccharides (such as sucrose and lactose), oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides (such as starch, glycogen, and cellulose). Strictly speaking, carbohydrates are not necessary for human nutrition because proteins can be converted to carbohydrates. The traditional diet of some cultures consists of very little carbohydrate, and these people remain relatively healthy. However, carbohydrates require less water to digest than proteins or fats and are the most abundant source of energy. Proteins and fat are vital building components for body tissue and cells, and thus it could be considered advisable not to deplete such resources by necessitating their use in energy production. Based on evidence for risk of heart disease and obesity, the Institute of Medicine recommends that American and Canadian adults get between 40-65% of dietary energy from carbohydrates. The Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization jointly recommend that national dietary guidelines set a goal of 55-75% of total energy from carbohydrates. Very low carbohydrate diets can slow down brain and neural function because the nervous system especially relies on glucose. Some problems have been cited for the long term effects of a no-carbohydrate diet for some individuals. Athletes, for instance, or those that participate in high intensity activities, will have a considerable reduction in performance, due to having little or no glycogen supplies stored in muscle tissue. Additionally, nephrotoxicity may occur, particularly in persons that are not very well hydrated.
Carbohydrates (By Difference) content:
Deficiency of carbohydrates can lead to ketosis, excessive breakdown of protein, fatigue and a decreased energy level as well as reduced fiber intake. Ketosis comes with symptoms, including headaches, a dry mouth and a fruity smell to the breath.
Excessive consumption of carbohydrates, especially refined carbohydrates and added sugars, can lead to negative health effects such as type 2 diabetes, dental caries and obesity.
Recommended daily intake:
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